Can't believe it's been a week to the day when I began this project, but I am glad at the amount of progress I have made on the project thus far. Tonight I will dive into adding a WCF Service to act as a layer in between the logic and data layer done in previous posts Part 1, Part 2, Part 3, Part 4, Part 5 and Part 6) and add adding RSS support to the site.

Integrating a WCF Service

First off, for those that aren't familiar, WCF (Windows Communication Foundation) is an extremely powerful Web Service Technology created by Microsoft. I first dove into WCF April 2010 when diving into Windows Phone development as there was no support for the "classic" ASMX Web Services. Since then I have used WCF Services as the layer for all ASP.NET WebForms, ASP.NET MVC, Native Mobile Apps and other WCF Services at work since. I should note, WCF to WCF communication is done at the binary level, meaning it doesn't send XML between the services, something I found extremely enlightening that Microsoft implemented. At it's most basic level a WCF Service is comprised of two components, the Service Interface Definition file and the actual implementation. In the case of the migration, I created my Interface as follows: [csharp] [ServiceContract] public interface IWCFService { [OperationContract] lib.Objects.Post GetSinglePost(int year, int month, int day, string postname); [OperationContract] List<lib.Objects.Comment> GetCommentsFromPost(int postID); [OperationContract(IsOneWay = true)] void AddComment(string PersonName, string EmailAddress, string Body, int PostID); [OperationContract] lib.Objects.Content GetContent(string pageName); [OperationContract] List<lib.Objects.Post> GetPosts(DateTime startDate, DateTime endDate); [OperationContract] List<lib.Objects.Post> GetPostsByTags(string tagName); [OperationContract] List<lib.Objects.ArchiveItem> GetArchiveList(); [OperationContract] List<lib.Objects.LinkItem> GetLinkList(); [OperationContract] List<lib.Objects.TagCloudItem> GetTagCloud(); [OperationContract] List<lib.Objects.MenuItem> GetMenuItems(); } [/csharp] The one thing to note, IsOneWay a top of the AddComment function indicates, the client doesn't expect a return value. As noted in last night's post, the end user is not going to want to wait for all the emails to be sent, they simply want their comment to be posted and the Comment Listing refreshed with their comment. By setting the IsOneWay to true, you ensure the client's experience is fast no matter the server side work being done. And the actual implementation: [csharp] public class WCFService : IWCFService { public Post GetSinglePost(int year, int month, int day, string postname) { using (var pFactory = new PostFactory()) { var post = pFactory.GetPost(postname)[0]; post.Comments = pFactory.GetCommentsFromPost(post.ID); return post; } } public List<Comment> GetCommentsFromPost(int postID) { using (var pFactory = new PostFactory()) { return pFactory.GetCommentsFromPost(postID); } } public void AddComment(string PersonName, string EmailAddress, string Body, int PostID) { using (var pFactory = new PostFactory()) { pFactory.addComment(PostID, PersonName, EmailAddress, Body); } } public Content GetContent(string pageName) { using (var cFactory = new ContentFactory()) { return cFactory.GetContent(pageName); } } public List<Post> GetPosts(DateTime startDate, DateTime endDate) { using (var pFactory = new PostFactory()) { return pFactory.GetPosts(startDate, endDate); } } public List<Post> GetPostsByTags(string tagName) { using (var pFactory = new PostFactory()) { return pFactory.GetPostsByTags(tagName); } } public List<ArchiveItem> GetArchiveList() { using (var pFactory = new PostFactory()) { return pFactory.GetArchiveList(); } } public List<LinkItem> GetLinkList() { using (var pFactory = new PostFactory()) { return pFactory.GetLinkList(); } } public List<TagCloudItem> GetTagCloud() { using (var pFactory = new PostFactory()) { return pFactory.GetTagCloud(); } } public List<MenuItem> GetMenuItems() { using (var bFactory = new BaseFactory()) { return bFactory.GetMenuItems(); } } } [/csharp] One thing you might be asking, isn't this a security risk? If you're not, you should. Think about it, anyone who has access to your WCF Service could add comments and pull down your data at will. In its current state, this isn't a huge deal since it is only returning data and the AddComment Operation Contract requires a prior approved comment to post, but what about when the administrator functionality is implemented? You definitely don't want to expose your contracts to the outside world with only the parameters needed. So what can you do?
  1. Keep your WCF Service not exposed to the internet - this is problematic in today's world where a mobile presence is almost a necessity. Granted if one were to only create a MVC 4 Mobile Web Application you could keep it behind a firewall. My thought process currently is design and do it right the first time and don't corner yourself into a position where you have to go back and do additional work.
  2. Add username, password or some token to the each Operation Contract and then verify the user - this approach works and I've done it that way for public WCF Services. The problem becomes more of a lot of extra work on both the client and server side. Client Side you can create a base class with the token, username/password and simply pass it into each contract and then server side do a similar implementation
  3. Implement a message level or Forms Membership - This approach requires the most upfront work, but reaps the most benefits as it keeps your Operation Contracts clean and offers an easy path to update at a later date.
Going forward I will be implementing the 3rd option and of course I will document the process. Hopefully this help get developers thinking about security and better approaches to problems. Moving onto the second half of the post, creating an RSS Feed.

Creating an RSS Feed

After getting my class in my WCF Service, I created a new Stored Procedure in preparation: [sql] CREATE PROCEDURE dbo.getRSSFeedListSP AS SELECT TOP 25 dbo.Posts.Created, dbo.Posts.Title, LEFT(CAST(dbo.Posts.Body AS VARCHAR(MAX)), 200) + '...' AS 'Summary', dbo.Posts.URLSafename FROM dbo.Posts INNER JOIN dbo.Users ON dbo.Users.ID = dbo.Posts.PostedByUserID WHERE dbo.Posts.Active = 1 ORDER BY dbo.Posts.Created DESC [/sql] Basically this will return the most recent 25 posts and up to the first 200 characters of the post. Afterwards I created a class to translate the Entity Framework Complex Type: [csharp] [DataContract] public class PostFeedItem { [DataMember] public DateTime Published { get; set; } [DataMember] public string Title { get; set; } [DataMember] public string Description { get; set; } [DataMember] public string URL { get; set; } public PostFeedItem(DateTime published, string title, string description, string url) { Published = published; Title = title; Description = description; URL = url; } } [/csharp] And then I added a new Operation Contract in my WCF Service: [csharp] public List<lib.Objects.PostFeedItem> GetFeedList() { using (var pFactory = new PostFactory()) { return pFactory.GetFeedList(); } } [/csharp] Now I am going to leave it up to you which path to implement. At this point you've got all backend work done to return the data you need to write your XML file for RSS. There are many approaches to how you want to go about to proceeding, and it really depends on how you want to serve your RSS Feed. Do you want it to regenerate on the fly for each request? Or do you want to write an XML file only when a new Post is published and simply serve the static XML file? From what my research gave me, there are multiple ways to do each of those. For me I am in favor of doing the work once and writing it out to a file rather than doing all of that work on each request. The later seems like a waste of server resources. Generate Once
  1. One being using the Typed DataSet approach I used in Part 1 - requires very little work and if you're like me, you like a strongly typed approach.
  2. Another option is to use the SyndicationFeed built in class to create your RSS Feed's XML - an approach I hadn't researched prior to for generating one
  3. Using the lower level XmlWriter functionality in .Net to build your RSS Feed's XML - I strongly urge you to not do this with the 2 approaches above being strongly typed. Unstrongly Typed code leads to spaghetti and a debugging disaster when something goes wrong.
Generate On-Thee-Fly
  1. Use the previously completed WCF OperationContract to simply return the data and then use something like MVC Contrib to return a XmlResult in your MVC Controller.
  2. Set your MVC View to return XML and simply iterate through all of the Post Items
Those are just some ways to accomplish the goal of creating a RSS Feed for your MVC site. Which is right? I think it is up to you to find what works best for you. That being said, I am going to walk through how to do the first 2 Generate Once Options. For both approaches I am going to use IIS's UrlRewrite functionality to route to For those interested, all it took was the following block in my web.config in the System.WebService section: [xml] <rewrite> <rules> <rule name="RewriteUserFriendlyURL1" stopProcessing="true"> <match url="^feed$" /> <conditions> <add input="{REQUEST_FILENAME}" matchType="IsFile" negate="true" /> <add input="{REQUEST_FILENAME}" matchType="IsDirectory" negate="true" /> </conditions> <action type="Rewrite" url="rss.xml" /> </rule> </rules> </rewrite> [/xml] To learn more about URL Rewrite go the official site here.

Option 1 - XSD Approach

Utilizing a similar approach to how I got started, utilizing the XSD tool in Part 1, I generated a typed dataset based on the format of an RSS XML file: [xml] <?xml version="1.0"?> <rss version="2.0"> <channel> <title>Jarred Capellman</title> <link></link> <description>Putting 1s and 0s to work since 1995</description> <language>en-us</language> <item> <title>Version 2.0 Up!</title> <link></link> <description>Yeah in all its glory too, it's far from complete, the forum will be up tonight most likely...</description> <pubDate>5/4/2012 12:00:00 AM</pubDate> </item> </channel> </rss> [/xml] [caption id="attachment_2056" align="aligncenter" width="300"]Generated Typed Data Set for RSS Generated Typed Data Set for RSS[/caption] Then in my HomeController, I wrote a function to handle writing the XML to be called when a new Post is entered into the system: [csharp] private void writeRSSXML() { var dt = new rss(); using (var ws = new WCFServiceClient()) { var feedItems = ws.GetFeedList(); var channelRow =; channelRow.title = Common.Constants.SITE_NAME; channelRow.description = Common.Constants.SITE_DESCRIPTION; channelRow.language = Common.Constants.SITE_LANGUAGE; = Common.Constants.URL;;; foreach (var item in feedItems) { var itemRow = dt.item.NewitemRow(); itemRow.SetParentRow(channelRow); itemRow.description = item.Description; = buildPostURL(item.URL, item.Published); itemRow.pubDate = item.Published.ToString(CultureInfo.InvariantCulture); itemRow.title = item.Title; dt.item.AdditemRow(itemRow); dt.item.AcceptChanges(); } } var xmlString = dt.GetXml(); xmlString = xmlString.Replace("<rss>", "<?xml version=\"1.0\" encoding=\"utf-8\"?><rss version=\"2.0\">"); using (var sw = new StreamWriter(HttpContext.Server.MapPath("~/rss.xml"))) { sw.Write(xmlString); } } [/csharp] Pretty intuitive code with one exception - I could not find a way to add the version property to the rss element, thus having to use the GetXml() method and then do a more elaborate solution instead of simply calling dt.WriteXml(HttpContext.Server.MapPath("~/rss.xml")). Overall though I find this approach to be very acceptable, but not perfect.

Option 2 - Syndication Approach

Not 100% satisfied with the XSD Approach mentioned above I dove into the SyndicationFeed class. Be sure to include using System.ServiceModel.Syndication; at the top of your MVC Controller. I created the same function as above, but this time utilizing the SyndicationFeed class that is built into .NET: [csharp] private void writeRSSXML() { using (var ws = new WCFServiceClient()) { var feed = new SyndicationFeed(); feed.Title = SyndicationContent.CreatePlaintextContent(Common.Constants.SITE_NAME); feed.Description = SyndicationContent.CreatePlaintextContent(Common.Constants.SITE_DESCRIPTION); feed.Language = Common.Constants.SITE_LANGUAGE; feed.Links.Add(new SyndicationLink(new Uri(Common.Constants.URL))); var feedItems = new List<SyndicationItem>(); foreach (var item in ws.GetFeedList()) { var sItem = new SyndicationItem(); sItem.Title = SyndicationContent.CreatePlaintextContent(item.Title); sItem.PublishDate = item.Published; sItem.Summary = SyndicationContent.CreatePlaintextContent(item.Description); sItem.Links.Add(new SyndicationLink(new Uri(buildPostURL(item.URL, item.Published)))); feedItems.Add(sItem); } feed.Items = feedItems; var rssWriter = XmlWriter.Create(HttpContext.Server.MapPath("~/rss.xml")); var rssFeedFormatter = new Rss20FeedFormatter(feed); rssFeedFormatter.WriteTo(rssWriter); rssWriter.Close(); } } [/csharp] On first glance you might notice very similar code between the two approaches, with one major exception - there's no hacks to make it work as intended. Between the two I am going to go live with the later approach, not having to worry about the String.Replace ever failing and not having any "magic" strings is worth it. But I will leave the decision to you as to which to implement or maybe another approach I didn't mention - please comment if you have another approach. I am always open to using "better" or alternate approaches. Now that the WCF Service is fully integrated and RSS Feeds have been added, as far as the end user view there are but a few features remaining: Caching, Searching Content, Error Pages. Stay tuned for Part 8 tomorrow.